Seema Agrawal and Dr. Lal Prasanth
Hypothyroidism is associated with a deficiency in the production of thyroid hormones viz. T3 and T4 which is common in hilly areas. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in many areas of developing countries in Asia, Sub-urban Africa and Latin America. The problem of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is hypothesised to be aggravated by malnutrition, environmental goitrogens and microbial pollution in these areas. Worldwide, thyroid dysfunction is a probable risk factor for 1 to 1.5 billion people usually considered due to simple iodine deficiency and presented as goitre (At least 200 million people). Amongst the various thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism is more common. Women are more prone to thyroid disorders especially those having a history of autoimmune disorders. Hypothyroidism is conventionally treated by administrating a daily dose of synthetic thyroid hormones e.g. Levothyroxine. However one of the most important adverse effects associated with synthetic thyroid hormone therapy is hyperthyroidism, a higher dose could cause symptoms of nervousness, palpitations or insomnia, typical of hyperthyroidism.
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